Monthly Archives: January 2017

Free Restaurant Employee Handbooks For Small Business Owners

Free restaurant employee handbooks from trustworthy online sources provide the freedom and convenience that small restaurant owners need to save money and time in running their business. However, there are certain risks in using free restaurant employee handbooks without crosschecking whether the generic policies fit the needs of your restaurant business.

Before you publish your employee handbook, consider the following points:

1. Have you consulted a lawyer or a law firm to verify the contents of your employee handbook?

It seems easier to just download templates of free restaurant employee handbooks, and then, chop up the sections you need and reassemble them together. However, keeping the text in your employee handbook generic might present a problem in the future.

The additional expense of hiring a lawyer is worth it when you find your business in jeopardy over a labor dispute. The words you choose will determine the way your employees understand your work policies.

Your lawyer will also counter check your policies against those required by your state as well as additional sources, such as city ordinances and the policies set by the US FDA regarding food handling and sanitation.

2. Are you practicing at-will employment?

Employing at will may seem practical for a small business, but it also leaves you vulnerable to disputes, such as wrongful termination charges. This limitation is under the implied-contract exception, which is one of three exceptions to the at-will employment rule.

Although you hired an employee without a written and signed contract, the presence of a restaurant employee handbook translates into a binding contract within the following conditions:

a. When you state that an employee can be terminated due to "just cause," you can not fire any of your restaurant staff without the presence of just cause, which defies the nature of at-will employment.

b. When the employee handbook explicitly states the standard procedures for employment termination, and you suddenly fire one of your employees without due process, then you are liable for breach of contract claims.

c. Avoid using binding language, such as referring to a job as "career" or providing policies for promotion and demotion, which are not possible in at-will employment.

3. Have you made provisions for cultural competency in your restaurant employee handbook?

Most workplaces today are multi-cultural and multi-lingual. In recognition of this diversity, your employee handbook as well as postings in your restaurant should be translated into one or two other languages. The most common foreign languages ​​include Spanish and Chinese.

Aside from tri-lingual translations, your restaurant employee handbook should also include provisions for holidays usually observed by other cultures. For example, Halloween may not usually require absence from work, but the Day of the Dead does. Visiting graves and participating in a procession are traditional practices for this special day in November.

Free restaurant employee handbooks are practical options compared to buying ready-to-use handbooks, but before you can use one of them as your own policy manual, you will have to tweak the content to strengthen the document's legal validity and to adhere to accommodate diversity in the workplace.

Manufacturing Process of Silicone Hoses

Silicone hoses are used in a host of applications ranging from automotive, food processing, medical, industrial etc. The versatility of silicone rubber makes it suitable for use in numerous places. Hoses are commonly used in intake systems, air coolers, etc. They are available in a number of diameters from large to small and can be ordered in many cuts and bents.

An order of silicone hoses does not take too long to manufacture since the manufacturing process has been customized by their manufacturers. The manufacturing process requires the right skills, tools, materials and the proper time. Here is a detailed look at the manufacturing process of silicone hoses:

Stage 1: Making a Mandrel Tool
A mandrel tool is a shaping tool that is made of metal and is hollow. It is used to bend silicone rubber in the shape and diameter of the desired silicone hose. It is commonly used in many other applications like blowing glass.

The first stage is to make mandrel tool (s) in the shape of the silicone hose (s). This is done by manipulating steel in the desired shape of the hose. These tools are usually stored by manufacturers in thousands of shapes and sizes. The dimensions are available on their website or product catalogue.

Stage 2: Choosing the Raw Materials
The raw materials are chosen specifically for making silicone hoses. These include silicone rubber, color pigments and reinforcement fabrics. Hoses are multi-layered and reinforcement fabrics are used to give them strength.

Stage 3: Milling & Calendering
The silicone rubber compound and the color pigments are mixed together in a mill. This process is called 'milling'. It takes around half an hour in the mill to produce a color pigmented silicone rubber compound.

The colored silicone rubber compound is placed into a calendaring machine. The machine presses the compound between rollers to make it into thin sheets. The calendaring machine then presses the flattened compound on to the reinforcement fabric. Now the material is ready to hand build the hoses.

Stage 4: Cutting & Rolling
The thin sheets are cut and piled to roll. The builders roll the thin sheets in tubes. It is necessary to maintain the correct thickness of the tubes. A finished tube needs to have the correct number of reinforcement plies. Now these tubes are ready to be used for building hoses.

The silicone tubes are carefully pushed on the mandrel tools to give the desired shape. Any air bubbles or joints are smoothed out. Silicone hoses that have extra joints or bends need extra care to push the tubes into shape.

Stage 5: Oven Curing, Cooling & Stripping
The silicone hoses are then cured in the oven and then cooled down. This gives them the desired shape. To remove them, they are stripped from the mold in one swift motion and put in the wash hose for cleaning. The hoses are then sent for trimming and inspection.

Stage 6: Trimming & Inspection
Before trimming the hose is marked where the edge has to be cut. The edges are then cut using a machine for fine edges. The trimming of After silicone hoses are On sent for quality inspection. Once they are approved they are ready for shipping to the client.

Homemade Frozen Fruit Sorbets – A Healthy Alternative to Ice Cream

"Ice cream, ice cream, we all scream for ice cream". Then we look in the mirror and scream again when we see that the ice cream has taken up permanent residence on our belly, hips, and thighs.

Are you a fan of the cool concoction but tired of paying the price for indulging in the dairy delight? Or are you lactose intolerant and a simple scoop of your favorite flavor will cause you to scream with anything but delight? For whatever reasons you regret craving the cold, creamy stuff, do not despair. There is a solution to your predicament. Meet the popular dessert's culinary cousin: fruit sorbet.

Homemade fresh fruit sorbets are the healthy equivalent of their evil relative. They do not contain dairy products, unpronounceable chemicals, high-fructose corn syrup, refined and processed sugar, animal fat, or high amounts of calories and guilt. They do contain fresh fruit and nothing else. Oh, yes there is one other ingredient: the ability to kick cravings for that other substance right out of your head.

What you will need to make this frozen treat is a masticating style juice extractor and a variety of fruit in any combination you desire. Adding banana to any assortment will give extra creaminess. Cut your fruit into chunks, place them in a container or plastic bag, and freeze. Once the fruit is frozen you can run the chunks through the masticating style juicer using the "blank" screen. This allows the entire fruit to pass through the masticating process and out the juicer nozzle. What you will have is something resembling soft-serve ice cream without its sinful qualities. Instead you will have a delicious, angelic wonderfulness with some truly good things to recommend it, like all the vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and natural fiber of fresh fruit.

So if you have been mourning the thought of having to give up your favorite dessert indulgence, think again. Get into the kitchen and whip up some homemade fruit sorbet. It's cold, it's creamy, it's sweet, it's satisfying, it's good for you and it's oh so good. It may even cause you to scream with delight.

30 Points, How Science Has Changed Our Lives

If we look life 100 years ago, and compare that with the today's life, we will notice that Science has dramatically changed human life. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the effect of Science on human life rapidly changed. Today, science has a profound effect on the way we live, largely through technology, the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

Some forms of scientific inventions have changed our lives entirely. For example the refrigerator has played a major role in maintaining public health ever since its invention. The first automobile, dating from the 1880s, made use of many advances in physics, mathematics and engineering; the first electronic computers emerged in the 1940s from simultaneous advances in electronics, physics and mathematics. Today we have extra high- speed super computers with 100% accuracy.

Science has enormous influence on our lives. It provides the basis of much of modern technology – the tools, materials, techniques, and sources of power that make our lives and work easier. The discoveries of scientists also help to shape our views about ourselves and our place in the universe.

Research in food technology has created new ways of preserving and flavoring what we eat. Research in industrial chemistry has created a vast range of plastics and other synthetic materials, which have thousands of uses in the home and in industry. Synthetic materials are easily formed into complex shapes and can be used to make machines, electrical, and automotive parts, scientific, technical and industrial instruments, decorative objects, containers, packing materials and many other items.

1: The use of science in daily life has helped us a good deal in solving problems, dealing with the maintenance of health, production and preservation of food, construction of houses and providing communication and trans-portational (related to transport) facilities. With the help of Science we have controlled epidemics and much other kind of diseases. Now we know the basic structure of DNA and Genetic Engineering is conducting research to find out the right and correct Gene Therapy to overcome all the diseases.

2: Science has changed the people and their living, life style, food habits, sleeping arrangements, earning methods, the way of communication between people and recreational activities. All kinds of music systems, computer games, electronic video games, DVDs, cinema entertainment and communication have been brought to our door with the help of Science. The life of man was very different from what it used to be 100 years back. Science has given ears to the deaf, eyes to the blind and limbs to the crippled. Science has adequately, energetically and productively advanced, changed, civilized, enhanced and progressed human life. Science has brought sophistication to human life.

In short science has changed, improved, enhanced, modified and refined human life in all ways.

3: Today with the help of Science we can explain what was strange and mysterious for the people of the past. The Science of Genetics opening new doors of understanding the human gene and cell.

4: Now human beings have become more critical and less fearful than our fore-fathers and ancestors.

5: Two hundred years ago death rate among children was very high. In those days seven out of eight babies died before their first birthday. Now with the help of vaccines, medications and proper health care system life expectancy has improved. Now people live longer and safe lives as compared to 200 years ago. Biochemical research is responsible for the antibiotics and vaccinations that protect us from infectious diseases, and for a wide range of other drugs used to defeat specific health problems. As a result, the majority of people on the planet now live longer and healthier lives than ever before.

6: After that and up to the age of 12 one used to fall in a prey to diseases like small pox, measles, whooping- cough, scarlet fever and diphtheria. Now Science has defeated these diseases.

7: At a later stage again one was under constant threat of yellow fever, malaria, typhus, cholera, typhoid and influenza. Today we have vaccines and medical aid to cope with these health problems. Further research is underway to find out the causes and treatment of these and other diseases.

8: From one person the disease used to spread among the other people. It is called Epidemics. Now with the help of Vaccines and Medications we have defeated these diseases. But still Science has to do more research and has to fight with other arenas of diseases.

9: Life was uncertain. It was rare to see to somebody thirty years old because due to diseases many people died earlier than the age of thirty. These conditions were prevailing just a short while ago.

10: In everyday life, we have to communicate with different friends and relatives, various official people and for general purposes. And many people to be contacted can be at very far off distances. However, time and distance both have been conquered by Science. Whether we want to communicate or travel, both are possible quickly, briskly and expeditiously.

11: These days there are very little chances of babies catching diseases, because births normally take place in hospitals under the supervision of a team of specialist doctors. Science has invented vaccines for young babies to protect them against future life illnesses.

12: Young people are also given medical treatment in time and these days the man lives for about seventy years.

13: Science and scientific methods have helped in finding out the cause of disease and its prevention.

14: Sanitary condition in the past was deplorable. Now we have better sanitary systems.

15: The city streets were unpaved; there was no proper drainage system. Garbage and other refuse was seen everywhere. Pigs were seen wandering through the streets. People got water from filthy wells. Now filtered mineral water is available to overcome diseases. Solid waste management is not a problem now a days, it is the duty of the city municipal committees to manage and dump it with the latest machinery and equipments

16: Now all these defects have gone. There is cleanliness everywhere. It is illegal to throw garbage into the streets. There is a proper drainage system and new and improved methods for solid waste management as it has been told earlier. There are separate departments that bother about sanitary condition of the towns.

17: A century ago for house hold purposes water was carried from wells outside in buckets. It sometimes proved injurious to human health. Moreover, it was insufficient for the daily needs. But now water filters have become a thing of common usage.

18: Now there is sufficient supply of water in cities. For example Los Angeles gets water through pipes from Colorado River, which is 340 miles away. This water is supplied to Los Angeles after the proper water filtration process.

19: With the help of science there is change in our food also. We get varieties of food. In the past, food could not be preserved. But now the quick freezing methods have made possible preservation possible. Due to modern technologies like dehydration and sterilization there is no chance of food poisoning. We get all kinds of fruits, meats and vegetables. Even those fruits and vegetables which are out of season.

20: Not only our eating habits are changed, but also there are improvements in our houses. Means of transport has also undergone a big improvement and change.

21: Science has also changed our attitudes. Superstitions have been discarded, because there is no scientific basis for them. Now people do not fear cloud thunders.

22: Now people no more believe that diseases are caused by evil spirits.

23: Astrology and fortune- telling have lost popularity as compared to 100 years ago. Nobody now fears black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13. Because science has proved that these kinds of fears are un-scientific and illogical.

24: Science has changed the longstanding false notions of the people, which are not supported by Scientific Facts.

25: Research in the field of science and technology has made people open-minded and cosmopolitan, because the Scientist does not like to travel on the beaten track and he always tries to find out new things, new explorations, new discoveries and new inventions.

26: Science has also brought medical equipments that help to save human life. The kidney dialysis machine facilitates many people to survive kidney diseases that would once have proved fatal, and artificial valves allow sufferers of coronary heart disease to return to active living. Since the 1980s, lasers have been used in the treatment of painful kidney stones. Lasers are used when kidney stones fail to pass through the body after several days, it provides a quick and low-pain way to break up the stone and allow the stones to be easily passed through the body. This technique is called Lithotripsy.

27: Arthroscopic surgery is a technique using fiber optics to probe complex joints such as knee, shoulder, ankle and wrist to evaluate injury. It is a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an "arthroscopy" while making repairs through a small incision.

28: 200 years ago nobody even knows that human body parts can be replaced or transplanted. Now kidney transplant is widely used to save human lives around the globe. Dr. Christian Bernard first of all invented the method of heart transplant. Eye transplant techniques are used in these days to see again this beautiful world, for those who have lost their eyes. These all are the blessings of Science.

29: Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) waves are allocated for variety of uses, including television, cellular phones, public safety radios, business radios, military aircraft communications, military radar, cordless phones, baby monitors, etc. So, whether someone is watching over-the-air TV, talking on cell phone, having police / fire / ambulance dispatched to an emergency they are experiencing, or having national airspace protected by military aircraft, they all are benefitting from the science that has allowed the use of UHF waves. Even it is used to treat some illnesses.

30: For communication, now we have fixed wire telephones, moveable wireless phone sets, cordless phones, mobile phones, wireless, video conferencing, Internet, Broad Band Internet, E-mail, Social Networks, Satellite Communication and many other ways to communicate. These all are blessings of Science. Today we are better aware of what is happening around the globe due to satellite television channels. The benign and benefits of science for human life are endless.

Role of Microbes in Human Welfare

1. Microbes in Household Products-

Micro-organisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd. LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. It also improves its nutritional quality by increasing vitamin B12. In our stomach too, the LAB play very beneficial role in checking disease causing microbes.

The dosa and idli is also fermented by bacteria. The dough, which is used for making bread, is fermented using baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A number of traditional drinks and foods are also made by fermentation by the microbes. 'Toddy', a traditional drink of some parts of southern India is made by fermenting sap from palms.

Microbes are also used to ferment fish, soyabean and bamboo shoots to make foods. Cheese, is one of the oldest food items in which microbes were used. The large holes in 'Swiss cheese' are due to production of a large amount of CO2 by a bacterium named Propionibacterium sharmanii. The 'Roquefort cheese' are ripened by growing a specific fungi on them, which gives them a particular flavour.

2. Microbes in Industrial Products-

In industry, microbes are used to synthesize a number of products valuable to human beings. Beverages and antibiotics are some examples. Production on an industrial scale requires growing microbes in very large vessels called fermentors.

A) Fermented Beverages-

Microbes like yeast are used for the production of beverages like wine, beer, whisky, brandy or rum. The same yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for bread-making and commonly called brewer's yeast, is used for fermenting malted cereals and fruit juices, to produce ethanol. Wine and beer are produced without distillation whereas whisky, brandy and rum are produced by distillation of the fermented broth.

B) Antibiotics-

Anti is a Greek word that means 'against', and bio means 'life', together they mean 'against life' (in the context of disease causing organisms); whereas with reference to human beings, they are 'pro life' and not against. Antibiotics are chemical substances, which are produced by some microbes and can kill or retard the growth of other (disease-causing) microbes.

Alexander Fleming while working on Staphylococci bacteria, once observed a mould growing in one of his unwashed culture plates around which Staphylococci could not grow. He found out that it was due to a chemical produced by the mould and he named it Penicillin after the mould Penicillium notatum. Its full potential as an effective antibiotic was established by Ernest Chain and Howard Florey. This antibiotic was extensively used to treat American soldiers wounded in World War II. Fleming, Chain and Florey were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945, for this discovery.

Antibiotics have greatly improved our capacity to treat deadly diseases such as plague, whooping cough (kali khansi), diphtheria (gal ghotu) and leprosy (kusht rog), which used to kill millions all over the globe. Today, we can not imagine a world without antibiotics.

C) Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules-

  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) produces citric acid,
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) produces acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) produces butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) produces lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Enzymes like Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry. The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a 'clot buster' for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Cyclosporin A, which is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Trichoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.

3. M icrobes in Sewage Treatment –

The municipal waste-water including human excreta is also called sewage. It contains large amounts of organic matter and microbes. Many of which are pathogenic. This can not be discharged into natural water bodies like rivers and streams directly.Before disposal, hence, sewage is treated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) to make it less polluting. Treatment of waste water is done by the heterotrophic microbes naturally present in the sewage. This treatment is carried out in two stages:

Primary treatment: These treatment steps basically involve physical removal of particles – large and small – from the sewage through filtration and sedimentation. These are removed in stages; initially, floating debris is removed by sequential filtration. Then the grit (soil and small pebbles) are removed by sedimentation. All solids that settle form the primary sludge, and the supernatant forms the effluent. The effluent from the primary settling tank is taken for secondary treatment.

Secondary treatment or Biological treatment: The primary effluent is passed into large aeration tanks where it is constantly agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it. This allows vigorous growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs (masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures). While growing, these microbes consume the major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This significantly reduces the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) of the effluent. BOD refers to the amount of the oxygen that would be consumed if all the organic matter in one liter of water were oxidized by bacteria. The sewage water is treated till the BOD is reduced. The BOD test measures the rate of uptake of oxygen by micro-organisms in a sample of water and thus, indirectly, BOD is a measure of the organic matter present in the water. The greater the BOD of waste water more is its polluting potential. Once the BOD of sewage or waste water is reduced significantly, the effluent is then passed into a settling tank where the bacterial 'flocs' are allowed to sediment. This sediment is called activated sludge. A small part of the activated sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank to serve as the inoculum. The remaining major part of the sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters. Here, other kinds of bacteria, which grow anaerobically, digest the bacteria and the fungi in the sludge. During this digestion, bacteria produce a mixture of gases such as methane, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. These gases form biogas and can be used as source of energy as it is inflammable.

4. M icrobes in Production of Biogas –

Biogas is a mixture of gases (containing predominantly methane) produced by the microbes and which may be used as fuel. Certain bacteria, which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material, produce large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called methanogens, and one such common bacterium is Methanobacterium. These bacteria are found in the anaerobic sludge during sewage treatment. These bacteria are also present in the rumen (a part of stomach) of cattle. A lot of cellulosic material present in the food of cattle is also present in the rumen. In rumen, these bacteria help in the breakdown of cellulose and play an important role in the nutrition of cattle. Thus, the excreta (dung) of cattle, commonly called gobar, is rich in these bacteria. Dung can be used for generation of biogas, commonly called gobar gas.

The biogas plant consists of a concrete tank (10-15 feet deep) in which bio-wastes are collected and a slurry of dung is fed. A floating cover is placed over the slurry, which keeps on rising as the gas is produced in the tank due to the microbial activity. The biogas plant has an outlet, which is connected to a pipe to supply biogas to nearby houses. The spent slurry is removed through another outlet and may be used as fertilizer. Cattle dung is available in large quantities in rural areas where cattle are used for a variety of purposes. So biogas plants are more after build in rural areas. The biogas thus produced is used for cooking and lighting.

The technology of biogas production was developed in India mainly due to the efforts of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

5. M icrobes as Biocontrol Agent –

Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Use of chemicals like insecticides and pesticides causes great harm. These chemicals are toxic and extremely harmful, to human beings and animals alike, and have been polluting our environment (soil, ground water), fruits, vegetables and crop plants. Our soil is also polluted through use of weedicides to remove weeds.

Biological control of pests and diseases: It is a method of controlling pests that relies on natural predation rather than introduced chemicals. A key belief of the organic farmer is that biodiversity furthers health. The organic farmer works to create a system where the insects that are sometimes called pests are not eradicated, but instead are kept at manageable levels by a complex system of checks and balances within a living and vibrant ecosystem. This is a holistic approach that seeks to develop an understanding of the webs of interaction between the myriad of organisms that constitute the field fauna and flora.

The very familiar beetle with red and black markings – the Ladybird, and Dragonflies are useful to get rid of aphids and mosquitoes, respectively.

An example of microbial biocontrol agents that can be introduced in order to control butterfly caterpillars is the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (often written as Bt). These are available in sachets as dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassica and fruit trees, where these are eaten by the insect larvae. In the gut of the larvae, the toxin is released and the larvae get killed.

A biological control being developed for use in the treatment of plant disease is the fungus Trichoderma. Trichoderma species are free-living fungi that are very common in the root ecosystems. Baculoviruses (genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus) are pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods. These viruses are excellent candidates for species-specific, narrow spectrum insecticidal applications. The beneficial insects are being conserved to aid in an overall integrated pest management (IPM) programme, or when an ecologically sensitive area is being treated.

6. Microbes as Biofertilizers-

Biofertilisers are organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. The main sources of biofertilisers are bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria.

  • The nodules on the roots of leguminous plants formed by the symbiotic association of Rhizobium. These bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms, which is used by the plant as nutrient. Other bacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen while free-living in the soil (examples Azospirillum and Azotobacter), thus enriching the nitrogen content of the soil.
  • Fungi are also known to form symbiotic associations with plants (mycorrhiza). Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza. The fungal symbiont in these associations absorbs phosphorus from soil and passes it to the plant. Plants having such associations show other benefits also, such as resistance to root-borne pathogens, tolerance to salinity and drought, and an overall increase in plant growth and development.
  • Cyanobacteria are autotrophic microbes widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments many of which can fix atmospheric nitrogen, eg Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, etc. In paddy fields, cyanobacteria serve as an important biofertiliser. Blue green algae also add organic matter to the soil and increase its fertility. Currently, in our country, a number of biofertilisers are available commercially in the market and farmers use these regularly in their fields to replenish soil nutrients and to reduce dependence on chemical fertilisers.

Important terminology-

Fermentors – Production of beverages and antibiotics on an industrial scale, requires growing microbes in very large vessels called fermentors.

Antibiotics – Antibiotics are chemical substances, which are produced by some microbes and can kill or retard the growth of other (disease-causing) microbes.

Primary treatment: The treatment step of sewage for physical removal of particles – large and small – from the sewage through filtration and sedimentation is called Primary treatment.

Secondary treatment or Biological treatment: After primary treatment.the primary effluent is passed into large aeration tanks where it is constantly agitated mechanically and air is pumped associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures).

BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) -BOD refers to the amount of the oxygen that would be consumed if all the organic matter in one liter of water were oxidised by bacteria.

Activated sludge – Once the BOD of sewage or waste water is reduced significantly, the effluent is then passed into a settling tank where the bacterial 'flocs' are allowed to sediment. This sediment is called activated sludge.

Anaerobic sludge digesters – A small part of the activated sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank to serve as the inoculum. The remaining major part of the sludge is pumped into large tanks called anaerobic sludge digesters.where anaerobica bacteria and the fungi digest the sludge.

Methanogens – Certain bacteria, which grow anaerobically on cellulosic material, produce large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2. These bacteria are collectively called methanogens.

Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods (using biological agents for natural predation) for controlling plant diseases and pests, rather than using chemicals.

Biofertilisers – In agriculture Biofertilisers are organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil.

Organic farming -Agriculture by using only biofertilisers is called organic farming because there are problems of pollution, associated with the overuse of chemical fertilizers. The main sources of biofertilisers are bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria.

Mycorrhiza – Fungal symbiotic association with plants which helps plants to absorb phosphorus from soil, is called mycorrhiza. Many members of the genus Glomus form mycorrhiza.

Cyanobacteria -Cyanobacteria are autotrophic microbes widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments many of which can fix atmospheric nitrogen, eg Anabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, etc.

Anup Singh Yadav M.Sc. M.Ed. M.Phil. NET Lecturer in Biology